Protein Information

General Information
MoonProt ID512
First appeared in release3.0
Name(s)High mobility group protein B1 Gene:HMGB1 Synonyms:HMG1 Recommended name: High mobility group protein B1 Alternative name(s): High mobility group protein 1 Short name: HMG-1
UniProt IDP09429 (HMGB1_HUMAN)
GO termsGO:0043277 apoptotic cell clearance GO:0032689 negative regulation of interferon-gamma production GO:0003684 damaged DNA binding GO:0070182 DNA polymerase binding GO:0090026 positive regulation of monocyte chemotaxis GO:0019958 C-X-C chemokine binding GO:0007204 positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration GO:0070374 positive regulation of ERK1 and ERK2 cascade GO:0002218 activation of innate immune response GO:0001530 lipopolysaccharide binding GO:1990774 tumor necrosis factor secretion GO:0043410 positive regulation of MAPK cascade GO:0046330 positive regulation of JNK cascade GO:0032425 positive regulation of mismatch repair GO:0045063 T-helper 1 cell differentiation GO:0032735 positive regulation of interleukin-12 production GO:0042104 positive regulation of activated T cell proliferation GO:0002840 regulation of T cell mediated immune response to tumor cell GO:0034165 positive regulation of toll-like receptor 9 signaling pathway GO:0097350 neutrophil clearance GO:0001786 phosphatidylserine binding GO:0043371 negative regulation of CD4-positive, alpha-beta T cell differentiation GO:0035711 T-helper 1 cell activation GO:0032733 positive regulation of interleukin-10 production GO:0016829 lyase activity GO:0032072 regulation of restriction endodeoxyribonuclease activity GO:0032732 positive regulation of interleukin-1 production GO:0032755 positive regulation of interleukin-6 production GO:0002643 regulation of tolerance induction GO:0051106 positive regulation of DNA ligation GO:2001200 positive regulation of dendritic cell differentiation GO:0010508 positive regulation of autophagy GO:0005576 extracellular region GO:0002376 immune system process GO:0006281 DNA repair GO:0045087 innate immune response GO:0005768 endosome GO:0005886 plasma membrane GO:0006954 inflammatory response GO:0003677 DNA binding GO:0006974 cellular response to DNA damage stimulus GO:0016020 membrane GO:0006935 chemotaxis GO:0005694 chromosome GO:0005737 cytoplasm GO:0005634 nucleus GO:0006914 autophagy GO:0002250 adaptive immune response GO:0006310 DNA recombination GO:0016032 viral process GO:0005793 endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment GO:0000976 transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding GO:0003713 transcription coactivator activity GO:0050786 RAGE receptor binding GO:0005125 cytokine activity GO:0003690 double-stranded DNA binding GO:0070491 repressing transcription factor binding GO:0003723 RNA binding GO:0042056 chemoattractant activity GO:0008301 DNA binding, bending GO:0008134 transcription factor binding GO:0005515 protein binding GO:0003697 single-stranded DNA binding GO:0043388 positive regulation of DNA binding GO:0043280 positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process GO:0033151 V(D)J recombination GO:0006357 regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0005615 extracellular space GO:0031175 neuron projection development GO:0002437 inflammatory response to antigenic stimulus GO:0045944 positive regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0043065 positive regulation of apoptotic process GO:0017055 negative regulation of RNA polymerase II transcription preinitiation complex assembly GO:0017053 transcription repressor complex GO:0009986 cell surface GO:0000793 condensed chromosome GO:0000122 negative regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II GO:0006342 chromatin silencing GO:0051103 DNA ligation involved in DNA repair GO:0006265 DNA topological change GO:0002407 dendritic cell chemotaxis GO:0001773 myeloid dendritic cell activation
Organisms for which functions have been demonstratedHomo sapiens (Human)
Sequence length215 amino acids
Structure Information
Quaternary structureNA
SCOP1 domain. class 1000004 Small proteins fold 2001271 Helical binder superfamily 3002701 p53 TAD family 4007136 p53 transactivation domain (TAD) domain 8050972 This domain is represented by 3DAC P:17-28 Cellular tumor antigen p53 Species Homo sapiens.
CATH1 Matching CATH Superfamily. Superfamily: DNA Binding (I), subunit A. 1 Matching CATH Domain. Domain: PDB code 2ly4, chain A, domain 00 Superfamily:
TM Helix Predictionno TM helices
DisProt AnnotationDisProt ID: DP01493 UniProt Accession: P09429 Protein Name: High mobility group protein B1 Organism: Homo sapiens Disorder content: 0.2
Predicted Disorder RegionsUse FASTA sequence on the MFDp2 webserver. spP09429HMGB1_HUMAN_High is 215 residues long, with 215 residues (100.00 %) predicted as disordered. The protein has 0 short (< 30 residues) disorder segments and 1 long (>= 30 residues) disorder segment. Segment 1 - Long (>= 30 residues) disordered segment Segment is located between positions 1 and 215 in the sequence. The segment is 215 residues long (100.00 % of the total sequence length).
Connections to Disease
OMIM ID163905
Function 1
Function descriptionOne of the major chromatin-associated non-histone proteins and acts as a DNA chaperone involved in replication, transcription, chromatin remodeling, V(D)J recombination, DNA repair and genome stability.
References for functionLi G, Liang X, Lotze MT. HMGB1: The Central Cytokine for All Lymphoid Cells. Front Immunol. 2013 Mar 20;4:68. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2013.00068. PMID: 23519706; PMCID: PMC3602962. Thomas JO. HMG1 and 2: architectural DNA-binding proteins. Biochem Soc Trans. 2001 Aug;29(Pt 4):395-401. doi: 10.1042/bst0290395. PMID: 11497996.
E.C. number
Location of functional site(s)
Cellular location of functionnucleus
Function 2
Function descriptionIn the cytoplasm functions as sensor and/or chaperone for immunogenic nucleic acids implicating the activation of TLR9-mediated immune responses, and mediates autophagy.
References for functionIvanov S, Dragoi AM, Wang X, Dallacosta C, Louten J, Musco G, Sitia G, Yap GS, Wan Y, Biron CA, Bianchi ME, Wang H, Chu WM. A novel role for HMGB1 in TLR9-mediated inflammatory responses to CpG-DNA. Blood. 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1970-81. doi: 10.1182/blood-2006-09-044776. Epub 2007 Jun 4. PMID: 17548579; PMCID: PMC1976374. Tang D, Kang R, Livesey KM, Cheh CW, Farkas A, Loughran P, Hoppe G, Bianchi ME, Tracey KJ, Zeh HJ 3rd, Lotze MT. Endogenous HMGB1 regulates autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2010 Sep 6;190(5):881-92. doi: 10.1083/jcb.200911078. PMID: 20819940; PMCID: PMC2935581.
E.C. number
Location of functional site(s)
Cellular location of functioncytosol